Molecules that safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged.
A material that has interaction with or effect on any cell tissue in the human body. In pharmacology, a biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial effect of a drug on living matter.
Any group of insoluble fibrous proteins that constitute the main structural component of connective tissue.
A (homogeneous and stable) suspension consisting of large molecules (or ultramicroscopic particles) of one substance dispersed in a second.
Disodium Lauryl Sulfosuccinate (DLS)
DLS is a cleansing agent known as a surfactant, with gentle degreasing, emulsifying, and foaming properties suitable even for more sensitive skin types.
Despite similar names, DLS is not to be confused with Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) or Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES). As DLS is not sulfated in production, it is free from sulfates and therefore the potentially harmful effects to the skin. DLS also contain larger molecules, and does not penetrate and irritate the skin the way SLS and SLES do, hence its use as a gentle yet effective alternative to sulfates.
(Deoxyribonucleic acid) A double helix molecule (helix is 3D) structure. An organic substance whose molecules consist of long chains of nucleotides. Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined make up the individual structural units of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA.
A substance that is inert - e.g. serves as a vehicle or medium alongside the active ingredient.
Atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules causing a chain reaction that causes damage to cell membrane.
A toxic substance, which is highly reactive to collagen and elastin causing their oxidation and degradation.
Any class of fatty substances or their derivatives that are not soluble in water and include many natural oils, waxes and steroids (from the Greek meaning ‘fat’).
Matrix mettaloproteinases. A family of zinc dependent endopeptidases collectively capable of degrading essentially all extracellular matrix components.
Oxidative degradation of unsaturated lipids. The process whereby free radicals ‘trap’ electrons from the lipids in cell membrane resulting in cell damage.
Interaction between oxygen molecules and all the different substances they may contact, from metal to living tissue.
The scale of acidity or alkalinity, where values below 7 (neutral) is acidic and greater than 7 is basic.
Naturally, skin is slightly acidic with a pH of around 5.5, with a thin protective layer made up of sebum called the acid mantle which is important for permeability barrier formation and antimicrobial defense.
Due to its bacteria-regulating properties, maintaining a low pH in the acid mantle is especially important for individuals with skin conditions such as acne, rosacea, and dermatitis.
Short for ‘surface active ingredient’, surfactants reduce surface tension in solutions. They enable substances that normally do not mix to suspend in the other – e.g. allowing water to mix with oil and dirt to facilitate their removal.